Routine examinations in pregnancy
Below is the complete list of routine examinations in pregnancy which are recommended by the Guidelines.
Towards the seventh / eighth week of pregnancy, if you have not already done them, it is good to perform the first cycle of routine tests: complete blood test, rubeo-test, toxotest, search for the Australia antigen, Wasserman reaction, blood group, complete urinalysis
Exempt exams (DM 10.09.98) are marked with an asterisk below
- Gynecological examination Measurement of blood pressure and body weight
- Test di Simmel
- Abnormal hemoglobins (HbS, HbH, HbD, etc.)
- PAP test
By the 13th week - Third month
- Complete blood count *: detects the number, size, characteristics and type of cells in the blood: red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. If the values are normal, it is still necessary to periodically repeat the blood count during pregnancy, in order to promptly verify a possible tendency to anemia or the possible onset of other pathologies.
- Blood group AB0 and Rh *: if the woman has not already performed blood group and RH factor tests, it should be requested in early pregnancy.
- Indirect Coombs test*: in case of Rh negative women, the test must be repeated every month
- Hepatic function (AST *, ALT *, total and direct bilirubinemia): enzymes contained in the liver; their elevation expresses possible hepatic suffering
- Rubella virus IgG and igM* (if you are in possession of documents certifying immunity or IgG positive and IgM negative, bring them to the control) it detects the presence in the blood of antibodies against rubella. If the test is negative, i.e. there are no antibodies, the test must be repeated every 4-6 weeks up to the XNUMXth month
- Toxoplasmosis IgG and IgM *: detects the presence of antibodies against toxoplasmosis. The presence of IgG antibodies, with IgM negative, indicates that the woman is immune. In this case there is no longer any need to repeat the examination and follow the prevention rules. If, on the other hand, the test is negative, it must be repeated every 4-6 weeks until the end of the pregnancy
- Antibodies to Treponema Pallidum * (causative agent of Syphilis)
- HIV antibodies * is the test that demonstrates the presence in the blood of antibodies against the AIDS virus
- Cytomegalovirus IgG and IgM if the woman has IgG positive and IgM negative at the beginning of pregnancy, the test is no longer repeated, while it repeats every 4-6 weeks if there is no immunity
- Emocoagulant parameters (PT, PTT, INR, ATIII)
- HbsAg (Antigene Australia): indicates the presence in the blood of the hepatitis B antigen, must be performed only once during pregnancy
- Anti-HCV antibodies this is the test to see if the mother has antibodies to the hepatitis C virus
- Hemoglobin electrophoresis it is necessary to perform this test if the blood count detects a microcythemia (small volume of red blood cells) or if there is a suspicion that the mother is a carrier of Mediterranean anemia (thalassemia) or some other hemoglobinopathy
- Glycemia* the only test for which fasting is truly required. Measure the amount of glucose (sugar) in the blood. If normal, however, it should be repeated periodically during pregnancy
- Complete urine test * a very simple test, which can give important information. The presence of any urinary tract infections (quite frequent occurrence in pregnancy) can be suspected if the nitrites are positive, there are bacteria and leukocytes in large quantities. The urinalysis should be repeated every month and, if necessary, also every week in the last month of pregnancy
- Ultrasound* By the 12th week of pregnancy there are already sketches of all the organs and various parts of the body of the unborn child. During this ultrasound it is checked if the pregnancy is single or twin regularity of the fetal heartbeat, and some measurements are made of the little one in training. First trimester ultrasound may also be requested for date the pregnancy accurately. This can be difficult in women who do not have regular cycles, in fact there are tables with reference values that allow you to establish, based on the length of the embryo and other measurements, the right gestational age.